A type of drama with an emphasis on eroticism and where a sexual relationship plays an important role in the plot. Often these frank films contain elements of graphic nudity, sexual intercourse, and fetishism, yet these acts rarely are portrayed gratuitously or for simple voyeuristic pleasure. Often, the attention is drawn to issues of pleasure, companionship, and emotional and physical necessity. Unlike exploitation or porn flicks, erotic dramas offer more elaborate dramatic structure, deeper psychological character motivations and display a higher artistic level; some of them have become acknowledged classics. Unfortunately, Hollywood's traditional reluctance in dealing with overtly sexual and erotic topics in a serious manner (studios prefer to link sex with violence, exemplified by the erotic thriller, or with humor in the teen sex comedy) have given this subgenre a predominantly international flavor since the mid-'60s. A few notable examples include Last Tango in Paris, In the Realm of the Senses, Betty Blue, Henry and June, Crash, The Lover, Lovers, The Hairdresser's Husband, Breaking the Waves, The Piano, Matador, and The Pillow Book. Domestically, the abandonment of the Hayes Code in the late ‘60s offered American filmmakers chances to maturely explore eroticism for the first time. Disappointingly, between Hollywood's squeamishness, the underground's ‘70s sexploitation movement and the ‘80s post-AIDS age of abstinence, little of interest was made. However, the rise of the American independents in the late-'80s and ‘90s finally produced filmmakers willing to address eroticism without shyness, leading to domestic starting points like Blue Velvet, sex, lies and videotape and Female Perversions.