An exploitation-film movement that emerged in the early 1970s starring, written and directed chiefly by African-Americans (though often made by white producers) and aimed primarily at urban theaters frequented by black audiences. Though the films embraced or parodied the conventions of almost all existing genres, the phrase is usually applied to inner-city crime and action films, notorious for their crude sensationalism, graphic violence, overt sexuality, revenge themes, and depiction of drug use. Characters varied from private eyes, to pimps and dealers, to feminist action heroes, but all exhibited racial pride, detested the American bourgeoisie mindset, and gave little respect to the Establishment. White businessmen and policemen were generally depicted as exploiting the ghetto community for profit, and the hero was almost always a vigilante of one type or another. Despite the fact that these films were made on very low budgets, Blaxploitation films overflowed with style, showcasing outlandish, garish costumes, funk and soul soundtracks, and expressionistic, sometimes experimental, photography and editing styles. The film acknowledged as the starting point was Mario Van Peebles' 1971controversial cult hit Sweet Sweetback's Baadasssss Song, detailing the rough life of a black stud on the run from The Man. Other crossover hits included Super Fly, Shaft, Coffy and Foxy Brown, the latter two starring Blaxploitation's queen, Pam Grier. Other notable female leads include Tamara Dobson (Cleopatra Jones), and Teresa Graves (Get Christie Love!), and prominent male stars included Fred Williamson (Hammer), Richard Roundtree (Shaft), and Ron O'Neal (Superfly).The style later influenced the New Black Cinema movement of the late ‘80s and early ‘90s, as well as the pop-culture-tinged work of Quentin Tarantino.