B-westerns (sometimes known as programmer westerns) are a sub-set of traditional westerns, with lesser production values and simplistic plots. Nearly all were produced after 1929 -- before 1929, studios weren't distinguished with A or B-film labels; all films were given an equal shot in the marketplace -- and prior to 1952. Most were made by minor, independent studios, but many were also made by specially designated satellite studios of the large studios. B-westerns are usually characterized as part of a "series" featuring a specific star, and frequently have shorter running times than other traditional westerns. In this context, they resemble episodes of a television series, and, indeed, B-westerns became staple of early television. Western television series such as “Gunsmoke,” “Rawhide,” and “Have Gun, Will Travel” evolved from motion picture western programmers.