French director Albert Capellani first entered the entertainment industry as a theatrical actor and administrator. In 1905 he began directing short comedies for Pathé. He soon began working on epic adaptations of literary classics such as his five-hour long 1912 version of Les Miserables. Enthusiastic young critics cited Capellani's work as an example of how film was indeed true art and this led to his invitation to work in the U.S. Between 1915 and 1922, he directed many American works. He began suffering from paralysis in 1923 and retired in France.