Eddie Constantine studied voice in Vienna but his career as a singer in the U.S. was unsuccessful. His wife, dancer Helene Mussel, joined the Ballets de Monte Carlo, and he followed her to Paris, where he began singing in nightclubs. Discovered by Edith Piaf, he became her protégé and intimate friend, and she helped him launch a career as a popular recording artist. His film career began in 1953, when he landed the role of a tough American private eye, Lemmy Caution, in a series of French action thrillers based on the novels of Peter Cheyney. His role as Caution culminated in Jean Luc Godard's Alphaville (1965). Constantine starred in movies of other genres, but usually maintained his basic tough-guy, heroic acting style. He is also the author of a novel, Le Proprietaire/The Godplayer.