Portuguese director/actor João César Monteiro made his feature-film debut in 1970 with Quem Espera por Sapatos de Defunto Morre Descalço/He Who Waits for the Dead Man's Shoes Dies Barefoot, which was released in 1971. Before joining the film industry, Monteiro wrote reviews for several Portuguese movie journals. In 1962, Monteiro assisted Perdigao Queiroga on O Milionário/The Millionaire. The following year Monteiro received a grant from the Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, and went to England to study at the London School of Film Technique. As with his debut, Monteiro spent several years carefully planning and completing each of his subsequent films, thereby accounting for the long gaps between releases. In between his own works, Monteiro occasionally acted for other directors, notably Manoel de Oliveira in Amor de Perdição/Doomed Love (1978). Monteiro published a semi-autobiographical book, Mortiuri te Salutant, in 1974.