Producer and business tycoon Marcus Loew was a key figure in the formation of MGM studios and founded the wide-spread chain of Loew's theaters. Loew was born in New York City, the son of Jewish Austrian immigrants. He was nine when he dropped out of school and began working odd jobs and honing his entrepreneurial skills. In 1905 he and partner Adolph Zukor purchased nickelodeons in Cincinnati and Manhattan and only two years later owned 40 more. Loew then began buying movie houses, forming Loew's Theatrical Enterprises in 1912, a company which at its peak held around 400 theaters. By 1920, the chain was still growing, and Loew, to insure that he always had a steady stream of films to exhibit, purchased Metro Pictures. Four years later he became the controlling interest in Goldwyn's studio and after that purchased Louis B. Mayer's company, combining all three into MGM, a subsidiary of Loew's inc. Both his twin sons, Arthur M. Loew and David L. Loew also became motion picture executives. David L. Loew also produced independent films.