American avant-garde filmmaker Gregory Markopoulous was a contemporary of Kenneth Anger and Stan Brakhage. Though considered quite talented, Markopoulous made few films. His most renowned and important films are Twice a Man (1963) and The Illiac Passion (1966). Most of his films, with blatantly homosexual subject matter and frequent allusions to the phallus, were considered quite daring and risqué and were only shown on the underground circuits. Merely a teen when he made his debut film in 1947, Markopoulous continued directing, writing the screenplays, photographing, and editing films through the '60s. He also sometimes penned articles for Film Culture and was an instructor at the Art Institute of Chicago. Toward the decade's end, Markopoulous moved to Switzerland and his output and contact with viewers became markedly reduced. Markopoulous also wrote a couple of books, including A Bibliography Containing the Marvelous Distortions of My Films as Reviewed in Books, Programs, Periodicals and Newspapers During 33 years: 1945-1978 (1978).