From Scotland, pioneering screen actor/director Donald MacKenzie (sometimes given as McKenzie) appeared with stage legend Augustin Daly, the Whitney Opera Company, and was featured in Lew Field's The June Bride prior to making his screen debut as an actor for the old Kalem Company in 1912. MacKenzie's main claim to fame, however, was as co-director (with Louis Gasnier) of The Perils of Pauline (1914), the era's most famous chapterplay and the serial that put Pearl White on the map. MacKenzie also played the supporting role of Blinky Bill, complete with hideous makeup and a wooden leg. There would be several other serials to come but none would have the impact of the original The Perils of Pauline, arguably the only silent serial whose title is familiar today. Returning to acting in the 1920s, MacKenzie continued in films until at least 1931.