A film portraying the life of crime and evil-doings of such fictional master criminals and arch-villains as Dr. Fu Manchu, Fantomas, Dr. Mabuse, Diabolik, and others. Often derived from popular paperback series, these films offer larger-than-life characters with almost supernatural abilities compared to real-life criminal figures. The protagonists vary from ominous figures with dreams of world domination (Dr. Fu Manchu, Dr. Mabuse), to suave superthieves like Arsene Lupin or A.J. Raffles. Unlike in comic-strip superhero films where arch-villains are always defeated by a superhero, a master criminal here is always the winner or, presumably dead at the end of the film, is mysteriously resurrected in a sequel.